Placing Science in Context for our Future Health Leaders: Action Inspired by the Great Challenges Program

We’re on a mission to better understand the impact that the Great Challenges Program and the TEDMED community are making in creating a healthier world. For the past 18 months, we’ve convened experts via Google Hangout for unbiased and broadly inclusive discussions on 20 of the thorniest issues in health and medicine today. Diverse subject matter experts share their perspectives and help the TEDMED community dive deeper into key barriers to success for each Challenge. TEDMED believes that when the world achieves a broad-based understanding of any given Challenge, it will then be in a better position to take truly effective action.

After a year and a half, we wanted to know: what impact has our Great Challenges Program had on you? How have these discussions prompted truly effective action from you or within your community? What is your Great Challenges story? We asked – and you answered.

As we read inspiring stories shared by the community, we also want to share them with you. This blog post is the first of a series of Great Challenge successes, so if you have not shared your story – now is the time.

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One of the most inspiring stories we heard was from Jodie Deinhammer, an Anatomy and Physiology high-school teacher at Coppell Independent School District, right outside of Dallas, Texas. Jodie teaches 150 juniors and seniors, and just last year, was Region 10 Secondary Teacher of the Year. From what we heard of Jodie’s story, the TEDMED team certainly wishes we had a teacher like her when we were in high school.

That’s because the Great Challenges Program has helped Jodie innovate in the classroom in ways that inspire her students to place health issues in context – the students don’t just learn about body parts; they focus on the global health system and ways in which we can all work together to shape a healthier world. And, the Program and the positive response from her students have even prompted Jodie to expand the reach of her classroom: two of her courses are available on the iTunes U app, where they have soared into the Top 10 rankings.

Last year, Jodie saw a tweet about one of our Great Challenges online events that focused on reducing childhood obesity. As a class her students watched that session and actively participated online. The students were so energized by the direct access to the expert participants who answered their questions, that they’ve become some of our most active community members. Of particular interest are the obesity and prevention challenges, which relate most closely to their classroom studies. Jodie reports that, “The big picture that we’re creating through the course is directly related to what they’ve watched and learned through the Great Challenges Program.”

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This year, in the first semester, the students have been looking at prevention and obesity, and based on what they’ve learned from the Great Challenges program and in class, have come up with one potential solution to address these large-scale issues: they built a six-week online class to help adults improve their overall health. As part of this online class, the students have come up one challenge per week: during the first week, the online class focuses on giving up a bad habit; during the second, it encourages users to get moving…you get the idea. The students will soon begin using it as part of a health challenge for the school’s teachers.

Next, the students move on to focus on another Great Challenge for the upcoming semester. They’ll tackle “the impact of poverty on health,” working on a program to provide technologies to developing countries in partnership with several global organizations.

This story is an incredible example of the ways in which the Great Challenges Program can empower participants to actively engage in improving their health and that of the world at large. We’re thrilled to see the Program putting science in a real-life context and helping to train the health movers and shakers of the future. And kudos to Jodie for her innovation in the classroom!

Now, it’s your turn – what’s your Great Challenges story? How has our program impacted your work or the way you live your life? Shoot us a note at challenges@tedmed.com. We can’t wait to hear from you.

Collaborating for Innovation

Conflict of interest. Does it have to dominate the agenda when public-private partnerships address healthcare? And, how can such partnerships lead to more and better innovation?

These were two key questions explored during TEDMED’s latest in-depth discussion of the Great Challenges of health and medicine. Our diverse group of experts provided some insightful and thought-provoking answers. The participants, who ranged from game theorist to pediatric ethicist, discussed obstacles they’ve found as collaborators in public-private partnerships and potential solutions to make these relationships more effective. Dan Munro, a Forbes contributor, moderated the event.

One of the biggest issues identified throughout the discussion was the lack of clarity and “game rules” when it comes to public-private partnerships. Myra Christopher, the Kathleen M. Foley Chair in Pain and Palliative Care at the Center for Practical Bioethics, explained that there are at least 53 different definitions of public-private partnerships. Myra noted, “there is a real cry-out for better and common understanding about the current game rules.”

Another issue that came to the forefront during the discussion was conflict of interest. With so many players in public-private partnerships, it’s hard to avoid conflicts of interest. However, John Tyler, the General Counsel and Corporate Secretary for the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, noted that, “conflicts of interest should not be an impediment. They should not be a barrier, but they should be understood and efforts should be made to try to manage them.” From John’s perspective, one way to make public-private partnerships more effective is to see the opportunity instead of the conflict, which can most likely be mitigated.

David McAdams, a game theorist and Professor of Economics in the Fuqua School of Business and Department of Economics at Duke University, also encouraged looking for the potential opportunities in challenging situations. When asked what the great challenges facing public-private partnerships in the next 20 years are in the context of shrinking resources, David responded that this might not necessarily be a bad thing. With fewer resources “you’re forced to try more creative innovation,” David noted.

With regards to the medical community, Skip Nelson, the Deputy Director and Senior Pediatric Ethicist in the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, Office of the Commissioner at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, brought up the issue of incentives. As grant funding is shrinking, “we need to find new ways of valuing what people are doing and promote them appropriately within those institutions.”

Polina Hanin, Academy Director at StartUp Health, brought up the idea of adopting an entrepreneur as a potential method of using public-private partnerships to foster innovation. Doing so would “allow [the entrepreneur] to see the intricacies and work flows that are really going to allow them to create a solution that’s going to work for the community… the organizations, and the patients that these startups are actually trying to help in the long-run.”

The participants agreed that at the core of any public-private partnership there must be trust and transparency. Once we “quit being such skeptics,” as Myra put it, there’s the potential for public and private entities to begin effectively collaborating for innovation.

If you missed the live event, catch the recast here: https://tedmed.com/greatchallenges/liveevent/497919, and stay tuned for our next Great Challenges hangout on Addressing Healthcare Costs next Thursday, December 11 at 12PM EST.

Live Online Event: Innovation through Collaboration

light bulb 3Please join us as we continue our Great Challenges Google+ Live Online Event Series, this time with a discussion focused on “Achieving Medical Innovation.” We’ll be discussing the various interpretations of public-private partnerships in healthcare, and whether and how these partnerships deter or support innovation.

Moderated by Forbes contributor Dan Munro, our diverse group of participants will explore the various facets of these creative relationships, sharing insights into what it means to have a unified “best-practice” execution of public-private partnerships in the healthcare space.

 

The healthcare world is an ever-evolving area with countless stakeholders, all working towards improving the health of the population. But with different priorities and different ways of working, how can diverse stakeholders work together most effectively? Public-private partnerships can bring together different viewpoints for a greater impact – they can increase resources, extend message reach, and expand collective knowledge and understanding. Many also believe such partnerships can speed up innovation – but what are the legal and ethical implications and challenges of innovating through public-private alliances? How can we think about more sophisticated ways of assessing and managing potential conflicts of interest? Can the medical community develop new models for public-private partnership that drive medical innovation while benefiting all involved parties?

Join us for a live online event on Thursday, November 20 at 12 noon to discuss these issues and more with experts on the topic. Get started today by tweeting your questions and comments and tagging them #GreatChallenges, and we’ll address as many as we can on air.

To learn more about the Great Challenges program, click here.

Get Smart About Antibiotics: Join us for a Twitter Chat with Ramanan Laxminarayan

Join TEDMED Speaker Ramanan Laxminarayan for a Twitter Chat about antibiotic resistance this Wednesday, 11/19 from 3-4pm ET.

Ramanan educates us about antibiotic resistance on the TEDMED stage.
Ramanan educates us about antibiotic resistance on the TEDMED stage.

Curious to learn more about the research behind Ramanan Laxminarayan’s TEDMED talk, “The Coming Crisis in Antibiotics”?

As part of the CDC’s Annual Get Smart About Antibiotics Week, TEDMED is hosting a Twitter Chat with Ramanan and the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) from 3-4pm (ET) this Wednesday, 11/19.

Delve a little deeper into Ramanan’s talk and learn more from him and the CDDEP about the rising challenge of antibiotic resistance and what you can do to combat it.  We’ll be framing our discussion around these three topics:

– Topic 1 (T1): Getting smart about antibiotics from the patient’s perspective
– Topic 2 (T2): Policy recommendations for strengthening antibiotics surveillance domestically and globally
– Topic 3 (T3): Strategies for conserving antibiotics as a natural resource

Tweet your questions our way using the #TEDMED hashtag, and remember to reference the topic! For background reading, be sure to check out the joint CDC/CDDEP study of antibiotic overuse in hospitals, which was just released in the Lancet earlier this week.

We’re looking forward to an insightful, collaborative discussion and hope you will join us then!

Protecting Antibiotics: Q&A with Ramanan Laxminarayan

Antibiotics have relegated life-threatening bacterial infections to our medical history books, or so think the vast majority of us. However, inappropriate antibiotic usage – for viral infections, in animal feed, in over-the-counter availability in some countries, and even over-treatment of some bacterial conditions – has also fueled the development of antibiotic resistance. This decrease in antibiotic efficacy coupled with the pharmaceutical companies’ slow development of new antibiotics are threatening our future fight against bacterial adversaries.

In his TEDMED 2014 talk, Ramanan Laxminarayan discusses how protecting antibiotics is a global issue and a worldwide responsibility, not one limited to a specific area of the world. He recently took the time from his busy schedule preparing for the CDC’s Get Smart About Antibiotics Week to answer a few follow-up questions:

What motivated you to speak at TEDMED?

I’ve been thinking about antibiotic resistance for nearly 20 years now, and have spoken about this problem and possible solutions to audiences ranging from clinicians, epidemiologists, hospital administrators, policymakers, economists, and even physicists.  But, the opportunity to reach a much wider audience through a format like TEDMED is rare and is probably better than even writing a book in terms of getting a message across.

Ramanan Laxminarayan on the TEDMED stage.  - Sandy Huffaker
Ramanan Laxminarayan on the TEDMED stage. – Sandy Huffaker

Why does this talk matter now? What impact do you hope the talk will have?

Like many others, I believe that we bear the responsibility of leaving the natural state of the planet in at least as good condition as it was in when we were first given responsibility for it.  I come to the problem of resistance from that perspective.  If we have fundamentally altered the microbial ecology of the planet, that is not very different from what we have done to the chemical composition of its air and water.  Antibiotics are amongst the most valuable natural resources we have been endowed with, and we have not recognized them as such.

What is the legacy that you want to leave?

Hopefully, my work has awakened, in a few people’s consciousness, the idea that we need a huge change in how we approach antibiotics.  If we are successful, then maybe in a few years, asking for an unnecessary course of antibiotics from your doctor will be the same as asking for a last drink for the road, or for a cigarette from a fellow passenger on an airplane.

Please share anything else you wish you could have included in your talk.

I would have loved to talk about my other passion: what it takes to deliver pediatric vaccines to 27 million children each year in India.  Fortunately, I had a chance to give a TEDx talk about this topic earlier this month. I’d also perhaps like to talk about the information structure of epidemics, if the TEDMED team ever makes the mistake of inviting me back.

How risky is it, anyway?

These days, science can tell us in incredible detail the ways our decisions are impacting our health – it’s easier than ever to discover what is going on in our bodies. We know that a poor diet or lack of exercise can have negative impacts on our heart health. We know that too much sun exposure can lead to skin cancer. We even know how diseases spread – and how they don’t. But, in the face of all of this information, we still continue to make decisions that may not be the best for our health.

In other words, many medical professionals are dismayed by the large gap between risk as perceived by scientists, and risk as perceived by the population as a whole.

As an example of this gap, some doctors and scientists point to the country’s reaction to Ebola. Though the average American is more at risk for flu, a car accident, obesity, diabetes, or heart disease than Ebola, the entry of the disease into the U.S. has brought a high level of fear. This prompts the question: How can the medical community accurately and responsibly communicate risk in a way that encourages healthy choices?

Last week, as part of the Great Challenges program, we convened a group of experts on the topic. They discussed the psychology behind risk perception and talked about strategies and tools that the medical community can use to ensure that patients receive an accurate understanding of their risks and are encouraged to act accordingly. The event was moderated by James Maskell, CEO and Founder of Revive Primary Care.

The participants all agreed that our reactions to risk are often driven by feelings before facts – and that the low level of health literacy in this country doesn’t help. Brian Zikmund-Fisher, PhD, an Associate Professor of Health Behavior & Health Education at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, noted that other elements of human risk perception include our experience (or those of others), our knowledge, our level of control, and our level of dread. He stressed the importance of understanding risk as a population-level construct.

Glyn Elwyn, MBBCH, MSC, FRCGP, PhD, a physician-researcher, Professor and Senior Scientist at the Dartmouth Health Care Delivery Science Center and the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, posed a key question: “How do we frame information so that it’s easy to understand?” The group agreed that risk perception is largely about context; they stressed the importance of using language and tools to create this context – which is not always statistics. Brian shared his thoughts on the subject: “how can we give people the tools so that they can understand under what circumstances they would be at risk, and when they’re not at risk? We need to use stories to represent examples and also provide quantitative information.”

Thomas Workman, PhD, MA, the Principal Communication Researcher and Evaluator for the Health and Social Development Program at the American Institutes for Research (AIR), had one suggestion: asking patients to think about how they would feel if the health condition for which the patient is at risk occurred. He called for patient involvement in the development of these tools, asking, “How can we incorporate patients into the development of some of these tools and technologies?”

Participants emphasized the importance of the clinical encounter in creating this context. At the same time, the short time for each office visit was a concern. Thomas noted that “The conversation with the physician is just as important as the conversation with the community.” He suggested that risk and prevention discussions can take place with organizations within the community – or even within small family units. David Bell, MD, MPH, an Assistant Professor of Population and Family Health at the Columbia University Medical Center, echoed this sentiment. He stressed the need for risk information to come from a trusted source.

The participants also recognized that the media plays an important role in framing the public’s risk perception. We live in a world where we are confronted with sensationalized news daily. Glyn pointed to the low trust in public information plus dread as a “toxic mix that the media are ventilating,” while Thomas asked: “How can we create more balanced messages?” Brian noted that while individual stories may make interesting news stories, they “will never be representative of the broader range of what could possibly occur.”

On the whole, the participants concurred that, as David put it, “Every step of the way patients get different messages about their risk and we all need to be on the same page.” A tall order, of course, but one which may lead to more realistic understandings of risk – and consequently, it is hoped, the adoption of healthier behaviors.

If you missed the live event, catch the recast here: www.tedmed.com/greatchallenges/liveevent/494673, and stay tuned for our next Great Challenges hangout on Achieving Medical Innovation later this month!

The Power of Play

In her TEDMED 2014 talk, Jill Vialet, CEO of Playworks, an organization that creates imaginative, inclusive school recreation programs, challenges us to release our inner child and remember that play matters to physical and emotional growth. She spoke with us via email about her talk and how play changes the paradigm of health and education reform.

What motivated you to speak at TEDMED?

I was excited to have the chance to speak at TEDMED because it was a great opportunity – and a great audience – for drawing attention to our societal ambivalence around play, despite the overwhelming evidence that it contributes to our health and well-being. There is a narrative in American life about what it takes to change things, and a resistance to ideas that don’t fit in with this narrative. The idea that play might be a part of the solution to America’s educational challenges simply doesn’t align with most people’s assumptions.

_C0A7227But recess is a part of the school day where the best and the worst things happen. It’s both an opportunity and a challenge hiding in plain sight, and when you ask most educators about it, they admit to having given it very little thought. While it is the most concentrated time in the day for experiences of bullying, it’s also an unparalleled opportunity to promote physical activity, inclusion and empathy. Speaking at TEDMED was a great opportunity to raise awareness that play matters – and in a broader sense, that changing systems requires attention to how it feels to be part of that system.

 Why does this talk matter now? What impact do you hope the talk will have?

This talk is important now because we are living in an age of health and education reform, and while the emphasis has been focused almost exclusively on what we do to rebuild these essential systems, too little attention has been paid to how we do it, and the importance of the environment in which the reforms take place. The demonstrable impacts of creating a more inclusive, playful environment, from helping kids feel safer to recovering instructional time, raise some important questions about what other undervalued and overlooked opportunities exist for building effective school environments and a culture of health.

What is the legacy you want to leave?

The legacy I hope to leave is a systemic awareness that play matters, reflected in thoughtful and explicit discussions around the importance of play any time we build institutions serving children and families. One of the most gratifying aspects of building Playworks over the past eighteen years has been in working with the young men and women – our coaches – who go out to schools to ensure that kids in our programs have access to safe, healthy play, every day. Through working with us, these coaches have discovered their own superpowers through the transformative experience of making a difference. My greatest hope is that these young leaders will take the experiences and skills they gained from working and playing with kids in schools, and apply them by being powerful changemakers for the rest of their lives.

Public Health’s Work on Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases—and the treatment of infectious diseases—has been a common theme in the news recently, with almost 4,000 people now dead from an Ebola outbreak in West Africa. It was only yesterday that Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person to be diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, died in a Dallas, Texas, hospital.

Earlier this week, some of the leading experts in infectious disease came together in the Google Hangout “TEDMED Great Challenges: Track, Treat, Prevent—A Better Battle Against Communicable Diseases.” They discussed the risk of communication, treatment, drug resistance, disease tracking innovation and related ethical issues. The event was moderated by Helen Branswell of the Canadian Press.

The panelists—across the board—agreed that the recent Ebola resurgence has served to highlight the importance of public health. Not just what it brings to the table during such emergencies, but the need for it to focus even more on prevention efforts and ensuring public health is fully funded and supported.

“Public health funding is one of those things people only really notice when something goes wrong,” said Dara Lieberman, a Senior Government Relations Manager at Trust for America’s Health.

Amy L. Fairchild, PhD, MPH, Professor of Sociomedical Sciences at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, believes that “in many ways, we’ve really lost our way in public health.”

“There was a period at the end of the 19th/beginning of the 20th century in which the field made these enormous strides in combating infectious diseases and combating communicable disease,” Fairchild said. “And then, with the rise of chronic diseases, we began to forget some of those…lessons learned about the need to focus on broad, sweeping environmental changes.”

Public health became focused on individual risk behaviors, she said, such as diet, exercise and smoking. The result was many in the field took their eyes off of the fundamental causes of disease.

“It’s not that those things aren’t important,” Fairchild said. “But the things that we’re going to be able to do as individuals are going to be far less consequential than what we can do from a more systematic perspective in public health.”

Ramanan Laxminarayan, a Research Scholar at the Princeton Environmental Institute at Princeton University, said the outbreak of something as serious as Ebola also serves to stress the importance of continuing to implement proven public health strategies, such as vaccinations for preventable disease.

“Even if disease burden is low, we need to keep the pressure on because it is that pressure that actually keeps infectious disease low,” said Laxminarayan. “If we stop vaccinating the world against measles today, for instance, it is very easy for measles to come back in a relatively susceptible population which is lacking immunity—and an explosive disease like that could kill millions.”

However, when it comes to diseases such as measles—which is one of many infectious diseases that have been declared eliminated in the United States—it can be difficult to communicate the need to continue receiving vaccinations.

“Prevention is going to be challenging because the consequences of prevention are not always obvious or apparent to folks who’ve never even seen that disease in their lifetimes,” said Laxminarayan.

Also, a considerable part of the role of public health professionals when responding to an infectious disease outbreak is managing the public’s reaction and understanding. Lieberman said that includes balancing the needs of those affected with the need to contain a situation.

“I think public health in general takes privacy and individual rights very seriously. At the same time, you just need to balance that with the practical need to protect the public from an infectious disease and from a highly dangerous disease,” said Lieberman. “So you can imagine if public health never knew who the individual was in Dallas, Texas. If that was just a privately treated person and public health didn’t get involved, then they wouldn’t have been able to investigate where he has been and who he’d had contact with. And it could have become a much wider spread outbreak (sic), so there is a need to weigh those two issues.”

When it comes to panic during an outbreak, Fairchild believes that it’s important to understand that panic can also bring about positive reactions.

“Panic is the language of action. When you hear panic in the air, you hear people talking about the need to take action,” said Fairchild. “And so it’s either a prompt to do something more—to beef up the infrastructure in West Africa, to beef up the response in the United States—or it’s a critique. It’s a critique we aren’t doing enough.”

One tactic that has been proven to be a boon for public health efforts has been the online tracking of people’s interest in, and concern over, different health issues. According to Christian Stefansen, a researcher at Google, today when a person is feeling “under the weather” their first action taken is often to log online, where they search for information about their symptoms. In 2008, Google launched Google Flu Trends, which continually looks at what people are searching for online and builds health model than can help public health experts get out in front of an issue.

Reprinted with permission from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s New Public Health blog.

Track, Treat, Prevent: A Better Battle Against Communicable Diseases

A Live Online Event: Tuesday, October 7 @12pm ET/9am PT

shutterstock_171831098Join us for the continuation of the Great Challenges Google+ Live Online Event Series as we discuss “Making Prevention Popular” in the context of infectious diseases. We’ll have some of the nation’s leading experts on infectious disease to discuss risk communication, treatment, drug resistance, disease tracking innovation, and related ethical issues.

The diseases may change, but the news is the same: The medical community continues to work on the best ways to track a communicable illness, control exposure, treat as appropriate, communicate risk and inspire behavior change. Are there new and better ways to prevent the spread of communicable diseases? How can we strengthen understanding and partnerships around prevention, including larger roles for patients, individual providers and communities.

With dangerous, sometimes deadly viruses and infections – such as Ebola, enterovirus D68, and MRSA – making their way through populations, our fight against these diseases has also taken center stage politically. Just last month, President Obama signed an executive order to create a task force that will develop and implement a five-year plan to prevent and contain outbreaks of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria and to create new, more effective tests, antibiotics, and vaccines. What might such a plan look like, in five, ten or 50 years?

Click here to RSVP, and be sure to kick off the conversation today by tweeting your questions and comments and tagging them #GreatChallenges – we’ll address as many as we can on air. To learn more about the Great Challenges program, click here.

We’ll see you online!

A medical school in Cuba trains doctors to serve the world’s neediest

American journalist and Havana resident Gail Reed spoke at TEDMED 2014 about a Cuban medical school that trains doctors from low-income countries who pledge to serve communities like their own all over the world. She talked with TEDMED about the Latin American Medical School and its contributions to global health.

Why does this talk matter now? What impact do you hope it will have?

Ridden by Ebola today, other emerging infections tomorrow, and always by chronic diseases—our world needs strong health systems, staffed by well-trained and dedicated people. And their education must be the result of enlightened decisions from policymakers who put health first, learning from the likes of the Latin American Medical School to make these new health professionals the rule, not the exception. Now is the time for medical educators to make the changes needed to give us the kind of physicians we need. And to bring the profession into the movement for universal health care, bringing doctors to the forefront with other health workers. To walk the walk.

Gail Reed at TEDMED 2014
Gail Reed at TEDMED 2014 Photo: TEDMED/Sandy Huffaker

I hope that people seeing the talk will be inspired to act to support the Latin American Medical School graduates through our organization, MEDICC. I hope policymakers will take the School’s courageous experiment to heart, and then take another look at their budgets and find more for health and medical school scholarships; and that governments will find a way to employ these new doctors in the public health sector, in places where they are most needed. I hope the graduates will never ever wonder about their importance to global health, for they and others like them are vital to turning around our global health crisis, in which one billion people still have no health care—millions, even, in the USA. And finally, I hope we will recognize Cuba’s contribution to global health, including the nearly 500 nurses and doctors on the front lines against Ebola in West Africa, as an example of what is possible and as a challenge to others to do more. Today, Cuba has over 50,000 health professionals serving in 66 countries, 65% of them women. Since 1963, 77,000 of them have given their services—and some their lives—in Africa.

What motivated you to speak at TEDMED?

As a journalist in Cuba, I realized I was witnessing an extraordinary experiment in health solidarity with the world’s poorest people: The thousands of scholarships offered by Havana’s Latin American Medical School to students from low-income families in 123 countries, who pledge to serve in communities poor like their own. I was struck by the fact that a country, an institution, believed these young people could themselves be the answer to the call for doctors where there were none. And I was astounded, too, that this audacious experiment has remained essentially an untold story. Audacity is right at home on TEDMED’s stage, so it seemed the perfect opportunity. I also thought the TEDMED audience would ‘get it,’ the urgency and responsibility we all have to support these new doctors, who represent the potential of imagination when commitment drives it into bold action.

What is the legacy you want to leave?

The talk’s legacy is in the hands of thousands of young doctors continuing to graduate from the School in Havana, who are bringing health care to some of the world’s most vulnerable people. Their school and their example should remind us that this is one world, with one fate and one humanity, and that the odds are there to beat: Health for all is possible.  

Want to learn more about Gail and her efforts? Visit her speaker page on TEDMED.com.

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